Brief Variation RS-fourteen
When looking for a helpful and you will legitimate instrument, besides required for different communities plus in which the suggested foundation build might be affirmed, a couple big desires were in the attention. “New RS-fourteen reveals the fresh brevity, readability, and you may easier scoring that happen to be recognized as very important qualities whenever choosing products for usage with teens” (Pritzker and you may Minter, 2014, p. 332). New RS-fourteen “will additionally provide information on this new trend and you can character of resilience using an accessible way bilgisayara amolatina indir of measuring resilience which often will permit reviews with earlier in the day and you can future look,” and therefore “deliver support proof that it’s a beneficial psychometrically sound scale to evaluate individual strength inside age range regarding teens and you can young adults” (Wagnild, 2009a; Pritzker and you can Minter, 2014).
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Finding even more financial version of the Resilience Scale, decreasing completion go out, and developing far more specifically for explore with young adults, Wagnild (2009a) modified the latest RS-twenty-five to14 circumstances. The newest short term “RS-fourteen scale includes fourteen notice-report products counted with each other a good seven-part rating size anywhere between ‘1-highly disagree’ to help you ‘7-highly agree.’ High score are a sign from strength level. With regards to the experts, ratings are calculated from the a realization regarding response beliefs for each and every item, ergo providing score to help you cover anything from fourteen so you’re able to 98.” Results less than 65 indicate lowest resilience; ranging from 65 and 81 show moderate resilience; more than 81 would be translated because the higher amounts of strength (Wagnild and you will More youthful, 1993; Wagnild, 2009b, 2014).
Using principal components analyses supported a single-factor solution; remaining in the RS-14 scale were those items with all item factor loadings >0.40. Reported psychometric properties of the RS-14 have demonstrated sound psychometric properties comparable to those of the RS-25: evidence of a one-factor structure was found and high reliability (coefficient Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90 and greater 0.96) and a strong correlation with the full version (r = 0.97, p = 0.001) were obtained (Wagnild, 2014). The overall factorability of the RS-14 demonstrated a robust one-factor measure of resilience, which has been replicated and has been confirmed in different studies and in the adaptations of this version for different countries (Wagnild, 2014). For instance: German ? = 0.91 (Schumacher et al., 2005); Portugal ? = 0.82 (Oliveira et al., 2015); Finland ? = 0.87 (Losoi et al., 2013); Japan ? = 0.88 (Nishi et al., 2010); China ? = 0.92 (Tian and Hong, 2013); Korean ? = 0.90 (Kwon and Kwon, 2014); Spain ? = 0.79 (Heilemann et al., 2003); Italian ? = 0.88 (Callegari et al., 2016); and Greek ? = 0.89 (Ntountoulaki et al., 2017). (2012) “examined the measurement invariance of the RS?14 in samples of U.S., Chinese, and Taiwanese college students and supported a one-factor model that demonstrated scalar invariance across cultures” (Yang et al., 2012). The short version RS-14 has been tested regarding its structure and it was found that results are not always totally consistent. Some discrepancies exist between findings of different studies; for instance the Brazilian version with 13 items (Damasio et al., 2011) or 12 items in the Portuguese adaptation for adolescents (Oliveira et al., 2015), and in the German Version 11 items (Schumacher et al., 2005). These discrepancies can eventually result from sampling issues: some studies used participants from very different developmental phases (Damasio et al., 2011), and others used participants <13 years old, an option that is not appropriate given that the authors of the RS advise against the use of the scale with participants from earlier ages (Wagnild, 2009b; Pritzker and Minter, 2014).