Quick Type RS-14
When searching for a useful and you can legitimate appliance, not only necessary for additional populations also the spot where the proposed factor design are going to be affirmed, a couple major goals was in fact during the focus. “The newest RS-fourteen demonstrates this new brevity, readability, and you may easier rating that have been recognized as lovoo chat crucial features when selecting products for usage that have adolescents” (Pritzker and you will Minter, 2014, p. 332). The newest RS-fourteen “will additionally render specifics of the new development and you will character out of strength using an accessible way of measuring resilience which in turn commonly enable evaluations having previous and you will future research,” and therefore “gives support research it is good psychometrically sound level to assess individual strength from inside the age groups from teenagers and you may teenagers” (Wagnild, 2009a; Pritzker and you can Minter, 2014).
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Finding so much more financial adaptation of Resilience Scale, decreasing achievement big date, and you can making more especially for fool around with with teenagers, Wagnild (2009a) modified this new RS-twenty-five to14 facts. New short-term “RS-fourteen scale contains fourteen self-declaration activities counted together a good eight-part get scale ranging from ‘1-highly disagree’ in order to ‘7-firmly consent.’ High score is actually an indicator off resilience level. According to article authors, scores are determined from the a conclusion regarding response values per goods, for this reason permitting ratings in order to vary from fourteen to help you 98.” Ratings less than 65 suggest reasonable strength; ranging from 65 and you can 81 show reasonable strength; a lot more than 81 was translated because highest degrees of resilience (Wagnild and you can Young, 1993; Wagnild, 2009b, 2014).
Using principal components analyses supported a single-factor solution; remaining in the RS-14 scale were those items with all item factor loadings >0.40. Reported psychometric properties of the RS-14 have demonstrated sound psychometric properties comparable to those of the RS-25: evidence of a one-factor structure was found and high reliability (coefficient Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90 and greater 0.96) and a strong correlation with the full version (r = 0.97, p = 0.001) were obtained (Wagnild, 2014). The overall factorability of the RS-14 demonstrated a robust one-factor measure of resilience, which has been replicated and has been confirmed in different studies and in the adaptations of this version for different countries (Wagnild, 2014). For instance: German ? = 0.91 (Schumacher et al., 2005); Portugal ? = 0.82 (Oliveira et al., 2015); Finland ? = 0.87 (Losoi et al., 2013); Japan ? = 0.88 (Nishi et al., 2010); China ? = 0.92 (Tian and Hong, 2013); Korean ? = 0.90 (Kwon and Kwon, 2014); Spain ? = 0.79 (Heilemann et al., 2003); Italian ? = 0.88 (Callegari et al., 2016); and Greek ? = 0.89 (Ntountoulaki et al., 2017). (2012) “examined the measurement invariance of the RS?14 in samples of U.S., Chinese, and Taiwanese college students and supported a one-factor model that demonstrated scalar invariance across cultures” (Yang et al., 2012). The short version RS-14 has been tested regarding its structure and it was found that results are not always totally consistent. Some discrepancies exist between findings of different studies; for instance the Brazilian version with 13 items (Damasio et al., 2011) or 12 items in the Portuguese adaptation for adolescents (Oliveira et al., 2015), and in the German Version 11 items (Schumacher et al., 2005). These discrepancies can eventually result from sampling issues: some studies used participants from very different developmental phases (Damasio et al., 2011), and others used participants <13 years old, an option that is not appropriate given that the authors of the RS advise against the use of the scale with participants from earlier ages (Wagnild, 2009b; Pritzker and Minter, 2014).